Tourism in Western Europe: A Collection of Case Histories

Richard Voase provides an interesting collection of case studies regarding Western European tourism development. The case studies are well organized in three thematic areas based on political, economic and socio-cultural contexts. The collection of stories communicates changes in tourism development and practices and reflects how tourism development seeks for new ways of tourism thinking. Voase concludes that tourism experiences, on the part of travelers, show signs of active decision making with passive consumption. This point prompts the reader to think that tourists choose “canned” experiences that are creatively constructed, however accessed through extensive information search and decision-making.

The case studies are authored by a variety of authors with strong local ties to the place they write about which enables extraordinary insight into issues the tourism industry faces in Europe and North America (although North America is not the focus of this book). This book can be used in a tourism development course to help students identify current issues in tourism (e.g., environmental challenges, sustainability, conservation approaches) and build upon definitions and theoretical models in tourism.

In his introduction, Voase conveys that the analysis or interpretation of the cases is based on political, economic, socio-cultural and technological environments. The analysis captures the multidimensionality of the tourism product and the cultural and social factors that relate to current ideologies, which affect how tourism evolves. Such ideologies are relating to prevalent postmodernism approaches that seem to affect those consumer behaviors, which capture experiential consumption rather than production processes of products or services.

The book consists of eleven chapters. The first four chapters are approached under the lenses of a political context analysis. The first chapter, by Meethan, presents the role of tourism marketing and public policy in the counties of Devon and Cornwall, England. Meethan concludes that for these two counties “marketing was one aspect of a wider integrated policy which aims to incorporate tourism more fully into the regional economy” and these programs would not have been possible without the funding from the European Union (EU). “The cases of Devon and Cornwall also demonstrate how new organizational forms emerge as a response to wider structural changes”.

Chapter 2, by Morpeth, focuses on the role of leisure and tourism as political instruments in Britain during the 1980s. Central and local governments used leisure and recreation policies as an extension of urban policy to balance the negative effects of unemployment and structural problems evident in England in the 1980s. Morpeth discusses the case of the city of Middlesbrough and the role of Thatcherism policies on the city, which focused on the generation of inner cities and the use of tourism as a tool for regeneration.

Chapter 3, by Voase, discusses the influence of political, economic and social change in a mature tourist destination; the Isle of Thanet in southeast England. Voase concludes that the process of policy, planning and development of tourism in a mature destination is not always straightforward. The antagonistic politics among the stakeholders involved in tourism development led to inconsistencies regarding the development of the destination. Chapter 4, by Robledo and Batle, focuses on Mallorca as a case study for replanting tourism development for a mature destination using Butler’s (1980) product life cycle concept. As a mature destination, Mallorca needs a sustainable development strategy to survive in the future. This acknowledgement led the Tourism Ministry of the Balearics Island Government to establish a tourism supply-side regulation to protect the environment. This plan however, as Robledo and Bade identified, is an interesting case of struggle between different groups (i.e., government, ecological groups, councils, hoteliers, construction industry) defending their interests in tourism development. Voase identifies these first four chapters having three common factors: the role and interplay of local tiers of government in the formulation and implementation of policy, the role of politics as a vehicle for the promotion and management of economic interests, and the powerful influence of socio-cultural factors. While these common factors are not directly evident in the presented case studies, Voase fills that gap with his writings. These common factors can stimulate further discussion as to what is the role of politics in tourism and how policy can affect researchers and practitioners in the field.

The second part of the book focuses on the economic context of tourism and its use as a regeneration and wealth creation tool. Chapter 5, by Lewis, focuses on two agri-environmental schemes, Tir Cymen and Tir Gofal, and how they affected recreational access in rural Wales. This chapter presents how these schemes caused many changes in the agricultural practices in Wales. These changes positively effected recreation opportunities in Wale’s agricultural landscape and changed relationships between “rural and urban and new demands for rural access, all of which now reflect the interdependence of environmental health, local social and economic needs, and access to land for recreation”.

Chapter 6, by Lindroth and Soisalon-Soinimen, discusses how a historic tourist product was developed in Loviisa, Finland. The goal of the tourism development was to create an image of Loviisa as a historic tourist destination and to create new products in alignment with the historic theme. Lindroth and Soisalon-Soinimen identified that without the support of the tourist office, as well as the National Board of Antiquities, development would not have progressed significantly. Also, the European Union funding helped with training and expert help. The professionals and project leaders involved in the process shaped the project through their enthusiastic actions described in detail in the case study.

Chapter 7, by Bohn and Elbe, describes the story of one man and how his vision for the municipality of Alvdalen, Sweden transformed the town into tourist destination. The most important element in this story is that this man created a destination without being an expert in the field of tourism development. He used the current notion of relationship marketing to achieve successful development without knowing its full value as a marketing tool. This chapter underlines also the importance of cooperation among stakeholders involved in tourism. Voase identifies factors that these three cases share: the role of the individual entrepreneur in developing the product, the consumption of natural resources, and tourism focusing on past heritage.

The third part of the book focuses on the socio-cultural context of tourism in four case studies. Chapter 8, by Finn, discusses the change of European football from being a fan’s sport to being a spectator’s sport. Finn identifies current sport marketing approaches, which construct a product, or experience where fans’ identity doesn’t fit with current “civilized” consumption processes, and instead, spectators’ identity fits with those images and procedures promoted by sport marketers inside and outside football stadiums.

Chapter 9, by Baron-Yelles, focuses on tourism and the politics of nature-based tourism and how the ‘Grand Site National at La Point du Raz” underwent changes in tourism provision services and infrastructure to accommodate tourists’ demands. In this chapter, the reader can observe trade offs between natural resources and the provision of tourism experiences. This case study also shows how a destination responded to stakeholders’ opinions about coastal conservation, public access and allowable visitation levels.

Chapter 10, by Lohmann and Mundt, focuses on maturing markets for cultural tourism in Germany. The chapter discusses how tourism shapes culture through the exchange of experiences between travelers and residents in a destination. Travel and tourism are discussed as constituents of culture. Lohmann and Mundt conclude travel has become an important part of people’s lives and in turn are exposed to other cultures, which can affect their own.

Chapter 11, by East and Luger, focuses on youth culture and tourism development in the Austrian mountains. East and Luger share interesting insights on youths’ reactions and behavioral adjustments toward tourists. They report that youth who are involved in tourism through family businesses tend to be more respectful of tourists. Youth in rural mountain areas were found to be interested in urban experiences.

Voase concludes these four final cases have three underlying themes. The first theme is that the consumption experience is staged or produced. This theme brings to mind MacCannell’s (1976) notion of front and back stage realities. Front stage is the presentation of a destination to visitors, whereas back stage is the real or truer nature of a destination. The second theme is that commercialization and commodification are not synonymous terms. The third theme is environments are often manipulated to influence people. Voase explains how sport environments have changed and caused spectators to also change.

Overall, this book is useful to practitioners and academics because it provides case studies offered by people with close connections to the tourism industry, thus providing an insider’s viewpoint. Voase, as both a practitioner in resort tourism marketing and an academic, effectively brings together case studies which focus on Western European tourism and communicates concepts which shift ‘old’ tourism principles to ‘new’. His introductions of each collection of cases (i.e., economic, political and socio-cultural) are insightful. Voase, however, does not discuss the introduction of Euro currency in January 2002. This is an important change to the economic structure of all countries-members of the EU and their socio-cultural development. The interconnection of the EU countries through the common currency might create a feeling of a larger community, which potentially affects tourism through cultural, social, political and economic of EU member-countries.

Finally, Voase’s concluding piece is insightful. His conclusions identify demographic, environmental and consumer trends that will influence tourism in Western Europe during the 21st century. He concludes an aging population, global warming, and active and passive consumer segments are elements of a ‘new’ tourism. All three trends will potentially affect future research in the field of tourism development and marketing. Both academics and practitioners should be aware of these trends. Voase as a practitioner and academic makes a meaningful contribution through these themed case studies and the identification of major themes and trends of tourism in Western Europe.


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Teempass Database Guidelines

Guidelines for Teachers and Trainers in carrying out Seminars on the use of TEEMPASS.

Choose your language, click on the appropriate flag icon and download the document package. Full information and instructions are included in the package.

These are the Guidelines for using the TEEMPASS database (developed as part of Work Package 6 of the YES! Employability Project) translated into the 5 languages used in the Project. The Guidelines are in a ZIP file format. Click on the link to download the ZIP file. You need software to unzip the file and access the documents. There is no password protection.


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This project has been funded with the support of the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


The Teempass Project includes eight organisations and institutions from Central European and Mediterranean countries with ITS as the lead partner.

Project Partners

Institute of Tourism Studies
Bajja San Gorg
San Giljan
Tel: 00356 2379 3274
Fax: 00356 2137 5472

CST Assisi
Centro Italiano di Studi Superiori sul Turizmo e sulla Promozione Turistica
Via Cecci, 1
06081 S: Maria degli Angeli (Assisi) PG
Tel: 0039 075 805 2832

Artes Srl
via Orvieto 8/i-12
S. Martino in Colle
06132 Perugia
Tel: 0039 32816 365 61
Fax: 0039 0757 823453

Rue Major Caldas Xavier
45-2a Dto
Tel: 00351 2193 48440
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No. 2 Gallina Street
Kappara SGN 4111
Tel: 00356 2131 8133/4
Fax: 00356 2133 6477

Av. llha da Madeira No. 32 – A
1400 – 200
Tel: 00351 2130 17443
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Technical School of Larnaka
P.O. Box 40213, 6302
Tel: 00357 2482 2660
Fax: 00357 2430 4524

Cyprus Chefs Association
19A Lykavitou Avenue
P.O. Box 27699
2401 Makedonitissa
Tel: 00357 9964 3166
Fax: 00357 2245 3424


Welcome to Teempass

Teempass is an On-Line Database of technical­-professional competencies found in the various sectors of the tourism industry and their related Learning Areas and Learning Pathways. The Database was developed as part of the YES Employability Project.


About the YES Project

The Tourism Industry is a leading contributor to the economy of a considerable number of member states in the European Union. This sector requires cautious treatment as it encompasses a substantially large workforce and is of critical importance to the livelihood of a substantial number of families. Unfortunately the Tourism Industry is rapidly becoming a host to ever increasing numbers of unskilled employees at a time when it is struggling to meet the requirements of qualifications, skills and competencies for both the present and the future.

The Institute of Tourism Studies, together with a broad European partnership, has been awarded an EU grant to carry out a project aimed at promoting transparency and recognition of competencies and qualifications, across Europe, in the tourism sector.

The two-year Project entitled YES Employability, is financed by the European Union as part of the Leonardo da Vinci Lifelong Learning Programme. The project proposes to tackle the need of the Tourism Education and Vocational Training sector for a workable system of validation, transfer and recognition, of skills and competencies achieved during formal, informal and non-formal circumstances, expressed in transferrable units, and that can be linked to national and european frameworks presently in use.

The YES Project seeks to extend the work already carried out in a prior Leonardo da Vinci project, NEW Hospitality, which, during 2006 – 2009, carried out research and testing and developed an on-line database of minimum competences which allows the guided compilation of the European curriculum vitae. The YES project intends to transfer this instrument to a new spectrum of beneficiaries and integrate the database application with other Europass tools besides the CV. The Project also proposes to integrate this new product within educational and vocational training programmes in order to facilitate their adjustment to European credit transfer and recognition procedures (ECVET).

The YES Project includes eight organisations and institutions from Central European and Mediterranean countries with ITS as the lead partner. These include the Centre for Advanced Studies in Tourism (Italy), ARTES srl (a research firm from Italy), the Malta Hotels and Restaurants Association, the Portuguese Association of Hotel Directors, SOFATI (a research firm from Portugal), the Technical Institute of Larnaca and the Cyprus Chefs Association.


The best practice identified as the basis of the proposed transfer was developed as part of the New Hospitality Project , Leonardo da Vinci Programme 2nd Phase 2000 – 2006, through which tools for the description, comparison and promotion of the qualifications and competencies within the hospitality industry were set, validated and tested.

An application for the description and cataloguing of the competencies was created and tested. This software application allows the guided compilation of the Europass Curriculum Vitae; in the original project the New Hospitality Europass was intended mainly for workers in the sector.

Transfer of Innovation

The new YES Project aims at the experimental processing and application, through their adaptation and transfer, of some of the products of New Hospitality. The YES project proposes the integration of a number of systems developed through the previous NH project with the already familiar and widelyused instruments developed at a European level (such as the Certificate Supplement and the Europass Mobility), for validation, transfer and recognition of learning outcomes achieved in formal, informal and non formal contexts.

The development of such instruments would serve to encourage the design of educational and training programmes that call for a detailed programming of learning outcomes and which would necessitate, as a reference, qualifications expressed in transferrable units that can be linked to the National and European framework in use today.


The YES Project envisages:

  • The up-dating of the contents of the New Hospitality Database, through the use of tools derived from best practises. This would also be necessary for the applicability and relevance of the geographical transfer.
  • The application of the contents of the New Hospitality database
    • to extend its use to a new range of beneficiaries, operators and users falling within the system of educational and vocational training (aged 17 to 22);
    • to allow the integration of the database itself with other Europass tools.
  • The mainstreaming of the products as part and parcel of educational and vocational training programmes, to be used as instruments in support of the European Credit Transfer and Recognition procedure (ECVET). The new modification will also provide a link between competencies, professional profiles and the training paths that can be followed in the partner countries.


The direct targets of the YES Project are:

  • Operators (tutors, trainers, teachers, guidance counselors) who supply training, guidance and placement services to subjects who are part of the educational and vocational training system and who intend to enter the hospitality labour market and who envisage the need for mobility.
  • Young people enrolled in the Tourism educational and vocational training system.
  • Young people with a medium to low level of instruction who, for example, dropped out of institutional educational programmes and who attend or have attended alternative courses.
  • Young people with fragmented and heterogeneous work experience and who intend to re-enter the educational and vocational training system.

The indirect targets of the YES Project are:

  • Public or private operators in the hospitality sector: businesses, trade unions and employers’ associations, political decision-makers who regulate orientation, training and the labour market.

European Vacations with Safety in Mind

Are you looking for vacations packages to Europe? Do you have a particular place or location in mind? Are you concerned about terrorist activity?

Let’s look at the last question first. Terrorism is a factor in all our lives whether we stay at home or travel inside or outside our own country. We need to consider our safety and not take undue risks, but we should not allow the terrorists to dictate how and when we travel. People have more chance of being injured in an automobile accident than as a result of acts of terrorism but that doesn’t stop them from driving. However we do take care when we drive to try to minimise our chances of being involved in an accident. That is precisely what we should do when travelling abroad either on vacation or on business. We should take care to minimise our risk of being involved in terrorist activities. Of course, as when driving, there is always the possibility of external factors that involve us in incidents beyond our control. Don’t let the terrorists win. You can still enjoy your vacation without having to consult Bin Laden first.

Europe is a great place to visit, whether you are looking for vacation packages or bespoke vacations. The culture and topography is so diverse that you have an extremely wide choice of European vacation packages to choose from. You might be interested in romantic vacations, adventure vacations, winter skiing vacations or European waterway vacations and still, within each category, you will find numerous possibilities.

Returning to our first thoughts on terrorism, you might like to consider finding a vacation that is off the beaten track, away from the usual tourist centres. This way you will be able to improve your safety, give yourself and your family peace of mind and at the same time enjoy a spectacular vacation without constantly colliding with your fellow countrymen.

Even if you would prefer to have a vacation visiting the capital cities of Europe, Rome, Paris, London or Amsterdam for example, you can still find much to be excited by without being in the center of tourist activity. Visit the backstreet restaurants where local people know value for money when they see (or eat) it. Stroll through that lovely park situated just behind the main tourist route but overlooked by so many. If you really wish to experience the real London or Paris you must get away from the souvenir stalls and overpriced restaurants.

The author of this article, David Singleton, is also the author of Amazing European Vacations, a new ebook (only $21.97) that is an essential guide to vacation packages in Europe. He has researched the Europe that most tourists never see. The book not only helps you decide where to visit but also gives advice on preparation, and how to enjoy a truly stress free vacation in Europe. You’ll receive some very useful free bonuses even if you decide not to buy.

Can you really trust the information that the tour operators or travel agents give you? They are trying to sell vacations to you in a very competitive market. Amazing European Vacations is totally unbiased and doesn’t try to sell you anything. Would you invest in stock without researching the company? So why invest in a vacation without this valuable information?

The Advent of Online Travel Booking System Made Travelling Easier

Travel and Tourism is among the most rapidly growing industries across the globe as technology has made the things easier. Globalization has made people aware about avenues and destinations in other countries. There are so many online travel portals available to help people to get their tickets and hotels booked in time by making the payment instantly through credit or debit cards. These travel portals are thus very popular nowadays as they have online travel booking systems which are very easy to use and operate. Now most of the people are having internet at homes, offices or in cell-phones through which they find the best travel deals available online and it has discarded the monopoly of travel agents who used to charge heavy commissions from their clients. Customers are now well aware of all the prices as they can check and compare it online which saves their money and precious time.

Online booking has many benefits as when we compare to the traditional form of spot bookings as a customer can book his/her tickets online by sitting right from his home or office. They don’t have to run to the booking windows seeking the availability of the tickets. Automated booking systems are beneficial for both the consumers and service providers as it has removed the commissions of middlemen, which were heavy on the pockets of customers previously. Businesses like hotels, car rentals, ticketing companies and restaurants have been greatly benefitted with advent this amazing technology. Information Technology has made the things very easy in every field and so is the case of travel and tourism industry.

There are many companies these days which are proficient in IT enabled services and they offer tour operator solutions [] by offering the travel & tour operators a complete automated solution to their businesses. Hotel owners also rely on such booking management system which helps them to track each and every thing related to their property. Hotel Management Software offer complete automation of the property by managing their room booking and cancellations, managing the inventory of the property, providing staff management solution and managing the point of sale at different locations of the property like restaurants, kitchen, room services, laundry or concierge services, etc. It has helped companies to establish their business with a brand and it has made easier for them to manage everything effectively and saving lots of time & manpower.

Booking engine for tour operators are also very helpful as they can also manage their business effectively. If they are offering tour packages, they require bus tickets, railway or flight bookings for transportation, also they need to book rooms instantly many times and in that case these online booking solutions play an important role. Many big players in the field of hospitality sector who are offering tour packages also have their own booking engine to track and operate their businesses smoothly and efficiently. Online bookings are now known to be the most effective and efficient way of doing business and reduce the possibilities of customers to double book. The margin of errors is also there with each automation software but still with their benefits, the margin of errors can easily be ignored, because at present TIME IS MONEY, and if you can save time then you are the king in any business.